Why Free Play Is Critical for Child Development
Free play refers to activity that is child-centered, child-initiated, child-controlled, and above all, fun. Children have been engaging in this sort of play naturally, and with enthusiasm, for millennia. But as play has become more structured and planned in the modern era, child development experts have been raising concerns about the potential ramifications of a decrease in free play. It turns out that many crucial skills are developed when children are allowed plenty of unstructured play time. Free play benefits children cognitively, socially, emotionally, and physically. In fact, the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights has declared that engaging in play is a universal right for every child on earth.
Children’s brains are designed by nature to learn and grow through play. Unstructured play is necessary to allow every child’s brain to flourish and reach its full cognitive potential.
The open-ended nature of free play lets children exercise their imaginations, thus enhancing their creativity. A group of children playing pretend will naturally engage in world-building, characterization, and storytelling. Activities such as building or designing structures can facilitate problem-solving skills and encourage innovative thinking.
Most importantly, free play helps children develop something called self-directed executive functioning. This refers to the cognitive control processes that regulate thought and action in support of goal-directed behavior. Developing executive functions as a child is critical for achieving independence as an adult. Free play is about children making their own choices, often in service of a clearly defined goal. Practicing this mode of thinking, in the low-stakes world of play, leads to habitual and natural decision making in adulthood. In fact, studies show that self-directed executive functioning is a strong predictor of academic performance and positive life outcomes.
Collaborative free play teaches children social skills they will not pick up in any classroom. In order for everyone to have fun, each child in the group must practice resolving conflicts and must be flexible to accommodate the others. This kind of play fosters a sense of empathy and cooperation by reinforcing the idea of other children as individuals, each with their own set of needs and desires.
Any kind of rigorous physical play is good for children’s muscles, bones, and cardiovascular system, but free play can take this development even further. Children who are choosing their own physical activity are likely to be more engaged and focused, leading to longer play sessions and more devotion to mastering desired skills. By deciding on, and following through, with their own self-imposed challenges, children become stronger, faster, and more coordinated. They can also develop better spatial awareness by actively exploring and interacting with their environment.
Any parent who has ever nervously watched their child climb too high, run too fast, or attempt to ride a bike without training wheels for the first time can attest that taking risks is a big part of play. The unbridled nature of free play leads to heightened risk-taking, as children are motivated by the desire to maximize their fun and to impress their friends. Trying and failing leads to resilience and perseverance, and successfully navigating risks enhances a child’s confidence and self-worth.
Free play can also help children practice self-regulation, or the ability to control one’s emotional responses. Children engaged in free play must learn to manage their own interactions rather than relying on an adult to facilitate. A child who frequently yells at his friends when angry will soon learn that it’s in his best interest to control his temper, especially if he wants those children to remain his friends. Learning to regulate one’s own emotions is an important part of becoming an adult.
Free play is a critical component in any child’s development. By fostering and encouraging more unstructured play, we are helping our children develop the tools they will need to succeed as adults. For more information on how to nurture your child’s development, contact us at Tessa International School, where we value free play and so much more, and encourage children to explore and express themselves in a safe and enriching environment.